The role of dietary phenolic compounds on body composition and body weight.

2019 edition

Sara Castro Barquero

INTRODUCTION: Recent evidence suggest that dietary intake of different polyphenols has been associated with obesity and obesity-related inflammation. However, the essential step towards the understanding of the protective effects of polyphenols on overweight and body composition depends on the adequate estimation of their consumption by dietary recalls. The aim of this study was to analyse the relationship between different polyphenol subclasses intake and body composition parameters.

METHODS: A cross-sectional study of 157 participants aged among 55-75 with metabolic syndrome recruited in the Hospital Clinic of Barcelona site from the PREDIMED-Plus study was performed. Total polyphenols and polyphenol subclasses intake were measured by food-frequency questionnaires (FFQ) by matching food consumption data with Phenol-Explorer database. Dual-energy X-ray Absorptiometry (DXA) measurement was performed to obtain body weight, android, gynoid and visceral fat mass. Participants were categorized in quartiles according to their total polyphenol intake, flavonoids, phenolic acids, stilbenes, lignans and other polyphenols intake. Multiple linear regression models were used to assess the relationship between polyphenol subclasses intake and body composition parameters adjusted by sex, age, body mass index and energy intake.

RESULTS: The mean of total polyphenol intake was 830.3 ± 285 mg/d, where flavonoids represent the 56.3%, phenolic acids 35.6%, other polyphenols 7.7%, and lignans and stilbenes less than 1%. Significant inverse association were observed between the higher quartiles of lignans intake and body weight (b=-1669.4, P=0.002). Associations between phenolic acids and lignans intake and total fat mass was also observed (b=-740.8, P=0.027; b=-703.9, P=0.047; respectively). A significant reduction of android fat mass was observed in relation to lignans intake (b=-115.8, P=0.034). Additionally, visceral adipose tissue was reduced in higher quartiles of lignans and other polyphenols intakes (b=-116.8, P=0.037; b=-119.7, P=0.042; respectively).

CONCLUSION: The sub-classes of dietary polyphenols, mainly lignans, may influence body composition independently of total energy intake.

Funding: Supported by CIBEROBN Fisiopatología de la Obesidad y Nutrición and Instituto de Salud Carlos III (ISCIII), through the Fondo de Investigación para la Salud (FIS).